Korean Readings in Unihan.txt ver.4.01
Errors, Equivalent Hangeul and ROK renderings

With thanks to Kobo-Daishi for spotting an error of hangeul transcription. One more error was found and corrected. These were the hangeul characters for CAY/jae and CEP/jeob respectively. All affected hanja have now been corrected in the file for download, (see end of this page).

The Unihan.txt file version 4.0.1 was released in 29 January 2004, at 27,592,561 bytes. Since the 3.0 version, many new fields have been added, however, the kKorean field still remains essentially unchanged since January 2000 in Unihan.txt of version 3.0. In the file, the kKorean field was described as follows:

#	kKorean
#		The Korean pronunciation(s) of this character, using the Yale romanization
#			system.  (See http://www.btranslations.com/resources/romanization/korean.asp
#			for a comparison of the various Korean romanization systems.)

After extracting the items in Unihan.txt which have been tagged with the kKorean field, 9049 lines of data were taken. On inspection, some characters had multiple readings. The maximum per character found, was four readings. Counting each reading per character, a total of 9775 readings for the 9049 characters were found.

These readings were sorted alphabetically, so that each unique reading or pronunciation syllable could be noted, 520 individual reading types existed. However, one in particular cannot be said to be a reading as such. This is the term "SA-LAM-IN-PYEN" which referred to the upright person radical variant 亻.

From the remaining list of 519 readings, the initials and rimes were separated, and we found that there were 17 initials (including a so called zero initial for syllables beginning with a vowel, w- and y-), and 88 rimes. From these rimes, we found 22 vowels type combinations and 9 consonant type endings. These are as follows

In analysing the information above, we note some variance with the Yale romanisation given by the site above with the inventory of sounds as represented as romanised jamo in the above table. These are OAY and UI vowel components of the following entries

In the author's sources he has the hangeul dictionary [ 活用玉篇 ] to cross check data. Only one of these characters can be traced, 歪 is given the hangeul character 왜 as it's pronunciation, which corresponds to the Yale romanisation WAY.

For 伜 SUI, we note that this is a simplified variant of the following entry

倅 쉬 SWI            swi     

and this gives us the corrected syllable as SWI which does conform to the Yale system of transcription. So, HUING must be spelt HWING, so the hangeul for these syllables are 쉬 SWI and 휭 HWING respectively.

After analysing the components of each syllable of reading, we now have a table of corresponding hangeul characters. The table is summarised as follows, in the format :

[hangeul] [YALE as in Unicode 4.0.1] [Equivalent ROK rendering]

아 A              a       
악 AK             ag      
알 AL             al      
암 AM             am      
안 AN             an      
앙 ANG            ang     
압 AP             ab      
애 AY             ae      
액 AYK            aeg     
앵 AYNG           aeng    
자 CA             ja      
작 CAK            jag     
잘 CAL            jal     
잠 CAM            jam     
잔 CAN            jan     
장 CANG           jang    
잡 CAP            jab     
재 CAY            jae     
쟁 CAYNG          jaeng   
저 CE             jeo     
적 CEK            jeog    
절 CEL            jeol    
점 CEM            jeom    
전 CEN            jeon    
정 CENG           jeong   
접 CEP            jeob    
제 CEY            je      
차 CHA            ca      
착 CHAK           cag     
찰 CHAL           cal     
참 CHAM           cam     
찬 CHAN           can     
창 CHANG          cang    
채 CHAY           cae     
책 CHAYK          cae     
처 CHE            ceo     
척 CHEK           ceog    
철 CHEL           ceol    
첨 CHEM           ceom    
천 CHEN           ceon    
청 CHENG          ceong   
첩 CHEP           ceob    
체 CHEY           ce      
치 CHI            ci      
칙 CHIK           cig     
칠 CHIL           cil     
침 CHIM           cim     
친 CHIN           cin     
칭 CHING          cing    
칩 CHIP           cib     
초 CHO            co      
촉 CHOK           cog     
촐 CHOL           col     
촌 CHON           con     
총 CHONG          cong    
최 CHOY           coe     
측 CHUK           ceug    
츰 CHUM           ceum    
츤 CHUN           ceun    
층 CHUNG          ceung   
촬 CHWAL          cwal    
쵀 CHWAY          cwae    
췌 CHWEY          cwe     
취 CHWI           cwi     
추 CHWU           cu      
축 CHWUK          cug     
출 CHWUL          cul     
춘 CHWUN          cun     
충 CHWUNG         cung    
지 CI             ji      
직 CIK            jig     
질 CIL            jil     
짐 CIM            jim     
진 CIN            jin     
징 CING           jing    
집 CIP            jib     
짓 CIS            jis     
조 CO             jo      
족 COK            jog     
졸 COL            jol     
존 CON            jon     
종 CONG           jong    
죄 COY            joe     
즉 CUK            jeug    
즐 CUL            jeul    
증 CUNG           jeung   
즙 CUP            jeub    
좌 CWA            jwa     
주 CWU            ju      
죽 CWUK           jug     
줄 CWUL           jul     
준 CWUN           jun     
중 CWUNG          jung    
어 E              eo      
억 EK             eog     
얼 EL             eol     
엄 EM             eom     
언 EN             eon     
업 EP             eob     
엇 ES             eos     
에 EY             e       
하 HA             ha      
학 HAK            hag     
할 HAL            hal     
함 HAM            ham     
한 HAN            han     
항 HANG           hang    
합 HAP            hab     
해 HAY            hae     
핵 HAYK           haeg    
행 HAYNG          haeng   
허 HE             heo     
헐 HEL            heol    
험 HEM            heom    
헌 HEN            heon    
히 HI             hi      
힐 HIL            hil     
호 HO             ho      
혹 HOK            hok     
홀 HOL            hol     
혼 HON            hon     
홍 HONG           hong    
회 HOY            hoe     
획 HOYK           hoeg    
횡 HOYNG          hoeng   
휭 HUING          hwing   
흑 HUK            heug    
흘 HUL            heul    
흠 HUM            heum    
흔 HUN            heun    
흥 HUNG           heung   
흡 HUP            heub    
희 HUY            hyi     
화 HWA            hwa     
확 HWAK           hwag    
활 HWAL           hwal    
환 HWAN           hwan    
황 HWANG          hwang   
홰 HWAY           hwae    
훤 HWEN           heo     
훼 HWEY           hwe     
휘 HWI            hwi     
후 HWU            hu      
훌 HWUL           hul     
훈 HWUN           hun     
훙 HWUNG          hung    
향 HYANG          hyang   
혀 HYE            hyeo    
혁 HYEK           hyeog   
혈 HYEL           hyeol   
혐 HYEM           hyeom   
현 HYEN           hyeon   
형 HYENG          hyeong  
협 HYEP           hyeob   
혜 HYEY           hye     
효 HYO            hyo     
휴 HYU            hyu     
휵 HYUK           hyug    
휼 HYUL           hyul    
흉 HYUNG          hyung   
이 I              i       
익 IK             ig      
일 IL             il      
임 IM             im      
인 IN             in      
잉 ING            ing     
입 IP             ib      
가 KA             ga      
각 KAK            gag     
갈 KAL            gal     
감 KAM            gam     
간 KAN            gan     
강 KANG           gang    
갑 KAP            gab     
개 KAY            gae     
객 KAYK           gaeg    
갱 KAYNG          gaeng   
거 KE             geo     
걱 KEK            geog    
걸 KEL            geol    
검 KEM            geom    
건 KEN            geon    
겁 KEP            geob    
것 KES            geos    
게 KEY            ge      
괘 KHWAY          kwae    
기 KI             gi      
길 KIL            gil     
김 KIM            gim     
긴 KIN            gin     
끽 KKIK           ggig    
꿑 KKUTH          ggut    
고 KO             go      
곷 KOC            goj     
곡 KOK            gog     
골 KOL            gol     
곤 KON            gon     
공 KONG           gong    
괴 KOY            goe     
괵 KOYK           goeg    
굉 KOYNG          goeng   
극 KUK            geug    
글 KUL            geul    
금 KUM            geum    
근 KUN            geun    
긍 KUNG           geung   
급 KUP            geub    
과 KWA            gwa     
곽 KWAK           gwag    
괄 KWAL           gwal    
관 KWAN           gwan    
광 KWANG          gwang   
괘 KWAY           gwae    
궐 KWEL           gweol   
권 KWEN           gweon   
궤 KWEY           gwe     
귀 KWI            gwi     
구 KWU            gu      
국 KWUK           gug     
굴 KWUL           gul     
군 KWUN           gun     
궁 KWUNG          gung    
갹 KYAK           gyag    
격 KYEK           gyeog   
결 KYEL           gyeol   
겸 KYEM           gyeom   
견 KYEN           gyeon   
경 KYENG          gyeong  
겹 KYEP           gyeob   
계 KYEY           gye     
교 KYO            gyo     
규 KYU            gyu     
귤 KYUL           gyul    
균 KYUN           gyun    
라 LA             ra      
락 LAK            rag     
랄 LAL            ral     
람 LAM            ram     
란 LAN            ran     
랑 LANG           rang    
랍 LAP            rab     
래 LAY            rae     
랭 LAYNG          raeng   
레 LEY            re      
리 LI             ri      
림 LIM            rim     
린 LIN            rin     
립 LIP            rib     
로 LO             ro      
록 LOK            rog     
론 LON            ron     
롱 LONG           rong    
뢰 LOY            roe     
륵 LUK            reug    
름 LUM            reum    
릉 LUNG           reung   
뤼 LWI            rwi     
루 LWU            ru      
략 LYAK           ryag    
량 LYANG          ryang   
려 LYE            ryeo    
력 LYEK           ryeog   
렬 LYEL           ryeol   
렴 LYEM           ryeom   
련 LYEN           ryeon   
령 LYENG          ryeong  
렵 LYEP           ryeob   
례 LYEY           rye     
료 LYO            ryo     
룡 LYONG          ryong   
류 LYU            ryu     
륙 LYUK           ryug    
률 LYUL           ryul    
륜 LYUN           ryun    
륭 LYUNG          ryung   
마 MA             ma      
막 MAK            mag     
말 MAL            mal     
만 MAN            man     
망 MANG           mang    
매 MAY            mae     
맥 MAYK           maeg    
맹 MAYNG          mang    
멍 MENG           meong   
미 MI             mi      
밀 MIL            mil     
민 MIN            min     
모 MO             mo      
목 MOK            mog     
몰 MOL            mol     
몽 MONG           mong    
무 MWU            mu      
묵 MWUK           mug     
물 MWUL           mul     
문 MWUN           mun     
먀 MYA            mya     
며 MYE            myeo    
멱 MYEK           myeog   
멸 MYEL           myeol   
면 MYEN           myeon   
명 MYENG          myeong  
몌 MYEY           mye     
묘 MYO            myo     
나 NA             na      
낙 NAK            nag     
날 NAL            nal     
남 NAM            nam     
난 NAN            nan     
낭 NANG           nang    
납 NAP            nab     
내 NAY            nae     
냉 NAYNG          naeng   
니 NI             ni      
닉 NIK            nig     
닐 NIL            nil     
노 NO             no      
녹 NOK            nog     
논 NON            non     
농 NONG           nong    
뇌 NOY            noe     
늧 NUC            neuj    
늑 NUK            neug    
늠 NUM            neum    
능 NUNG           neung   
누 NWU            nu      
눌 NWUL           nul     
눈 NWUN           nun     
녀 NYE            nyeo    
녁 NYEK           nyeog   
녈 NYEL           nyeol   
념 NYEM           nyeom   
년 NYEN           nyeon   
녕 NYENG          nyeong  
녑 NYEP           nyeob   
녜 NYEY           nye     
뇨 NYO            nyo     
뉴 NYU            nyu     
뉵 NYUK           nyug    
오 O              o       
왜 OAY            wae     
옥 OK             ok      
올 OL             ol      
온 ON             on      
옹 ONG            ong     
외 OY             oe      
박 PAK            bag     
발 PAL            bal     
반 PAN            ban     
방 PANG           bang    
배 PAY            bae     
백 PAYK           baeg    
벌 PEL            beol    
범 PEM            beom    
번 PEN            beon    
법 PEP            beob    
베 PEY            be      
벡 PEYK           beg     
파 PHA            pa      
팔 PHAL           pal     
판 PHAN           pan     
팟 PHAS           pas     
패 PHAY           pae     
팽 PHAYNG         paeng   
피 PHI            pi      
픽 PHIK           pig     
필 PHIL           pil     
핍 PHIP           pib     
포 PHO            po      
폭 PHOK           pog     
폴 PHOL           pol     
폿 PHOS           pos     
품 PHWUM          pum     
푼 PHWUN          pun     
풍 PHWUNG         pung    
팩 PHYAK          pyag    
폄 PHYEM          pyeom   
편 PHYEN          pyeon   
평 PHYENG         pyeong  
폐 PHYEY          pye     
표 PHYO           pyo     
비 PI             bi      
빈 PIN            bin     
빙 PING           bing    
보 PO             bo      
복 POK            bog     
본 PON            bon     
봉 PONG           bong    
뿐 PPWUN          bbun    
부 PWU            bu      
북 PWUK           bug     
불 PWUL           bul     
분 PWUN           bun     
붕 PWUNG          bung    
벽 PYEK           byeog   
별 PYEL           byeol   
변 PYEN           byeon   
병 PYENG          byeong  
사 SA             sa      
인 SA-LAM-IN-PYEN in      
삭 SAK            sag     
살 SAL            sal     
삼 SAM            sam     
삼 SAN            san     
삼 SANG           sang    
삼 SAP            sab     
새 SAY            sae     
색 SAYK           saeg    
생 SAYNG          saeng   
서 SE             seo     
삭 SEK            seog    
살 SEL            seol    
선 SEM            seom    
선 SEN            seon    
성 SENG           seong   
섭 SEP            seob    
세 SEY            seo     
시 SI             si      
식 SIK            sig     
실 SIL            sil     
심 SIM            sim     
신 SIN            sin     
십 SIP            sib     
소 SO             so      
속 SOK            sog     
솔 SOL            sol     
손 SON            son     
송 SONG           song    
쇠 SOY            soe     
쌍 SSANG          ssang   
씨 SSI            ssi     
싀 SUI            syi     
슬 SUL            seul    
승 SUNG           seung   
습 SUP            seub    
솨 SWA            swa     
괘 SWAY           swae    
쉬 SWI            swi     
수 SWU            su      
숙 SWUK           sug     
술 SWUL           sul     
순 SWUN           sun     
숭 SWUNG          sung    
샤 SYA            sya     
다 TA             da      
달 TAL            dal     
담 TAM            dam     
단 TAN            dan     
당 TANG           dang    
답 TAP            dab     
대 TAY            dae     
댄 TAYK           daeg    
덕 TEK            deog    
타 THA            ta      
탁 THAK           tag     
탈 THAL           tal     
탐 THAM           tam     
탄 THAN           tan     
탕 THANG          tang    
탑 THAP           tab     
태 THAY           tae     
택 THAYK          taeg    
탱 THAYNG         taeng   
터 THE            teo     
토 THO            to      
톤 THON           ton     
통 THONG          tong    
퇴 THOY           toe     
특 THUK           teug    
투 THWU           tu      
도 TO             do      
독 TOK            dog     
돌 TOL            dol     
돈 TON            don     
동 TONG           dong    
득 TUK            deug    
등 TUNG           deung   
두 TWU            du      
둘 TWUL           dul     
둔 TWUN           dun     
윽 UK             ug      
을 UL             ul      
음 UM             um      
은 UN             un      
응 UNG            ung     
읍 UP             ub      
의 UY             yi      
읫 UYS            yis     
와 WA             wa      
왈 WAL            wal     
완 WAN            wan     
왕 WANG           wang    
애 WAY            wae     
윌 WEL            weol    
원 WEN            weon    
위 WI             wi      
우 WU             u       
욱 WUK            uk      
울 WUL            ul      
운 WUN            un      
웅 WUNG           ung     
야 YA             ya      
약 YAK            yag     
양 YANG           yang    
여 YE             yeo     
역 YEK            yeog    
열 YEL            yeol    
염 YEM            yeom    
연 YEN            yeon    
영 YENG           yeong   
엽 YEP            yeob    
예 YEY            ye      
옌 YEYN           yen     
요 YO             yo      
욕 YOK            yog     
용 YONG           yong    
유 YU             yu      
육 YUK            yuk     
울 YUL            yul     
운 YUN            yun     
웅 YUNG           yung    

The above table leaves intact the original mistakes in OAY, SUI and HUING of the Unihan.txt version 4.0.1 but the correct hangeul and ROK pronunciations are given.

The author further proposes that the upright person radical, mentioned above, should be given the following rendering

인 SA-LAM-IN-PYEN in      

We can now convert all the 9775 readings into the above format, this time, we can include the character itself as the leading field in the following format. (The use of OAY, SUI and HUING has remained in this new listing, for backwards compatability with version 4.0.1. They should be corrected to WAY, SWI and HWING respectively to conform with the YALE transcription method.)

[hanja] [hangeul] [YALE U4.0.1] [ROK]

The file can be downloaded from this site here.


© Dylan W.H. Sung 2005

This page was created on Sunday 10th April 2005
and recently updated on Saturday 16th April 2005